Binding of the manuscript is a final stage of the manuscript's production. Once the text and decorations were complete the loose gatherings (quires) were ready to be bound into a codex.
Preparing the manuscript for binding
put together on top of each other and sewn at the
After the text was written and the decorations were completed, the gatherings were put together on top of each other and sewn at the back edges into a book-block.
See a close-up of AM 468 4to to see a picture of a book open between two gatherings. In order to protect and strengthen the book-block, two wooden boards were bound to it, with sometimes the addition of buckles to keep the binding closed. These boards and the spine of the book were often covered in leather.
Manuscripts with the original binding are rare. Because of damage, many bindings have been renovated or replaced with new ones. Bindings are constantly undergoing conservation nowadays to protect the manuscripts' contents. See an example of the conservation of a manuscript.
Shortening words through suspension, contraction, or superscript symbols
Read more: Script
The Old Norse name for the language in which books were written, i.e. Latin
An illustration with a border around the drawing
See an example: Borders
The study of a book's material structure and its history
The study of a book's structure
A comparative study of the same text in different manuscripts
A section at the bottom of a page in an edited text, where the main variants are indicated along with their manuscript